Yet no one has managed to explain why these cuprates are able to superconduct at all. Now, two Caltech chemists have developed a hypothesis to explain the strange behavior of these materials, while also pointing the way to a method for making even higher-temperature superconductors.
Superconductors are invaluable for applications such as MRI machines because they conduct electricity perfectly, without losing any energy to heat—a necessary capability for creating large magnetic fields. The problem is that most superconductors can only function at extremely low temperatures, making them impractical for most applications because of the expense involved in cooling them.
Some cuprates can be cooled using liquid nitrogen. This makes them much more practical, since liquid nitrogen is plentiful and its cost is about a hundredth that of liquid helium.
The ultimate goal, however, is the creation of superconductors that could operate near room temperature. These could improve cell-phone tower signaling and the robustness of the electrical grid, and could one day enable the operation of levitating trains at dramatically reduced fuel costs.